The notes about artists on this page are supplementary to the main articles about the towns and churches where these Italian artists are encountered - see indivdual Italian towns as mentioned for more details:
Agostino di Duccio
About di Duccion C. Perkins wrote: Agostino di Duccio or Gucci ... failed in his attempt to make a colossal statue out of the block of marble which Michel Angelo afterwards used for his David, and is identical with the Agostino di Florentia who made the bas reliefs from the life of San Gimignano let into an outer wall of the cathedral at Modena and the beautiful façade of the church of San Bernardino at Perugia, which with its terracottas and parti-coloured marbles forms one of the most charming examples of Polychromatic Architecture in Italy” ( See C. Perkins, “Tuscan Sculptors”, London, 1864, Vol. I, p. 200).
It was very important for the career of Piermatteo d’Amelia that the powerful Geraldini Family, patrons of the fine arts, were in his hometown. Piermatteo of Amelia was born presumably between 1445 and 1448, and he collaborated in 1467 with Filippo Lippi (1406-1469) on the frescoes of the apse of the Cathedral of Spoleto.
Twelve years later, in 1479, he was called to Rome by the Papal Curia to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. We do not know the exact date of his death, although some archival documents suggest that the artist died in 1506.
His name is mainly linked to works such as the Triptych Madonna and Child with Saints, also known as the Franciscan altarpiece, now in the Art Gallery of Terni, and an Annunciation called Gardner because it was exposed in the Gardner Museum in Boston and defined by Federico Zeri a painting of "high quality” (See “Piermatteo d’Amelia” in “Pittura in Umbria meridionale fra Trecento e Cinquecento”, Ediart, 1996, pp.. 444 ff.).
For the convent of the Franciscan Friars Piermatteo d’ Amelia painted the altarpiece dedicated to Saint Anthony Abbot (located in the Museum) and then the Franciscan altarpiece (now preserved in the Art Gallery of Terni).
See also Amelia
"Nicolaus Pictor," that is Niccolò Liberatore (he was named "Alunno" by G. Vasari (1511-1574), who read wrong the artist's signature on the painting on wood of Foligno, 1492). Niccolò Liberatore was born in Foligno in 1430 and was active between 1454 and 1502. He possessed a highly expressionistic style, tending to the emotional, as was typical of the ancient Umbrian tradition of painting, and he worked in many cities of Umbria.
The work that he painted for the Collegiate Church of Bastia Umbra dates from the end of his work as a painter, and criticism judged it like this: "It is a large painting divided into six distinct spaces. In the center there is the Madonna seated with the Child in her arms. In the bottom of the chair we read: 'Hopus Nicolai Fulginatis, 1499' [ by Niccolò from Foligno, 1499]. In the two spaces on the right side there is St. Sebastian, tied to a column, with an arrow stuck in his chest and another arrow in the thigh.
To the left there is St. Michael the Archangel, with a lance with the devil under his feet. In the three spaces above stands out the Eternal Father, surrounded by eight angels. To the side are depicted the Archangel Gabriel and the Virgin. On the pedestal are depicted the Prophets David, Zechariah, Micah, Jeremiah, Isaiah and Daniel.
On the pedestal on the right we read the name of the customer, Don Benigno from Spello” (See “Niccolò Alunno e la scuola umbra”, Rome, 1872, pp. 164-165). What is certain is that a work so difficult seems excessive for a old painter, for which the contemporary criticism has noted that "in the altarpiece of 1499 at Bastia Umbra, and the Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew in Marano at Foligno in 1502, appears the predominant action of his studio and of his son Lattanzio "(See N. Ceroni, “Pinacoteca comunale di Ravenna: museo d'arte della città : la collezione antica”, Longo, 2001).
Tiberio Ranieri di Diotallevi
known as "Tiberius of Assisi", because the artist liked to sign his works with this name (although sometimes signed "Tiberius Diatelevi" (see F. De Boni, “Biografia degli artisti ovvero dizionario della vita e delle opere dei pittori, degli scultori, degli intagliatori, dei tipografi e dei musici di ogni nazione”, 1852, p. 43). Perhaps a pupil of Perugino, he was active since 1486 and worked in various cities in Umbria. At Bastia he painted a "St. Luke", a fresco, which was part of a group representing the "Madonna with Child": "From documentary sources we know that Tiberius, in 1520 was at Bastia, where he participated in a notorial act in the same church of Santa Croce "(See F. F. Mancini-P. Scarpellini, “Pittura in Umbria tra il 1480 e il 1540: premesse e sviluppi nei tempi di Perugino e Raffaello”, Electa, 1983, p. 113).
On his education we know little. In this regard, Umberto Gnoli wrote that it is "probable that Tiberius learned the rudiments in his hometown, at the School of Andrea called “l’Ingegno” ( See E. Lunghi, “Da Andrea d'Assisi a Pietro Perugino (e ritorno)”, in “Bollettino della Deputazione di storia patria per l'Umbria”, 2006, p. 62). As we have seen, it would seem that Andrea called “L’Ingegno”, master of Tiberius, was a pupil of Perugino (1450-1523), but also his pictorial training is very uncertain"(See U. Gnoli, “Andrea d'Assisi detto l' 'Ingegno'”, in “Rassegna d'arte”, 1919, XIX, pp.. 33-36).
In this regard, R. van Marle wrote: “I do not agree with those who consider Bartolomeo Caporali the best of the painters before Perugino. I find that, technically, as well as aesthetically, Bonfigli was his superior (...) We have no authentic work from his hand. Gnoli imagines that he executed certain frescoes at Rocca S. Angelo and at Bastia, near Assisi, which have all the appearance of productionsn of the school of Caporali” ( See R. van Marle, “The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting”, Hacker Art Books, 1970, p. 147).
Benedetto Bonfigli would seem to have been born in Perugia about the year 1420, some seven years before the death of Gentile da Fabriano (1375 circa-1427). A painter of but little importance we may think; concerned not so much with Art as with the representation of religious truths, and almost by chance a kind of historical painter, in the Cappella dei Priori, where he has painted so languidly, and yet with a certain sweetness, at least in the early frescoes, the story of the city as it had come down to him ; the wonderfully heroic actions of S. Ercoiano, his life, his death, and all the wonders of that distant past.
But as the master of Perugino, as the only visible founder of that school of Perugia which became so famous, which has been so beloved, Bonfigli appears to us as a painter of more importance than his weak but charming work at first suggests” (See E. Hutton, “The Cities of Umbria”, New York, 1905, p. 181). ). However, it seems that the fresco of Santa Croce had been a work of pupils.
A native of Assisi, for which he also was named Caesar from Assisi (1581 circa-1668). Sermei was a great painter of devotion, who was inspired by the ancient Umbrian School: " A significant example of his style is the 'Last Judgement', a fresco in the apse of the Basilica Inferiore of St. Francis of Assisi "(See G. Sapori, “Una fatica di Cesare Sermei”, in “Prospettiva”, 1985, p. 194).
But Sermei was also a great realist painter; we remember his paintings on the "Fairs" of Assisi and its surroundings. A. Cristofani wrote: " His paintings, for the richness and variety of groupings of people, the bizarreness of shapes and hairstyles, and the vitality and dramatic movement, can be compared to the most beautiful Flemish painting. He painted the lodges filled with merchants and goods, the crush and confusion of buyers and sellers in the Main Square, the horse market in the vast lawn of ‘Piazza Nuova’. In these stories we find a realism which in these days is obtained only with photography. "(See A. Cristofani, “Delle storie d'As[s]isi libri sei”, 1866, p. 532).
"The figure of Dono Doni, never before politely understood, was a notable artist of the Northern Umbria, throughout the sixteenth century. He not only excelled in the art of Assisi, but also worked in Foligno, Gubbio and Bevagna (...) He was born "around 1500 in Assisi, where he died in 1575. He was a pupil of Giovanni Spagna (1450-1520) in early times, before turning to the imitation of Raffaello (1483-1520) and Giulio Romano [1499-1546] (...)
He was influenced also by Raffaellino del Colle (1495-1566), with whom he collaborated, along with Lattanzio Pagani da Monterubbiano (1520-1582) and Cristoforo Gherardi (1508-1556) in 1543 in the decoration of the chapel of the “Rocca Paolina” in Perugia (now destroyed), commissioned by Cardinal Tiberio Crispo (1498-1566). This was the decisive event for the final maturation of Doni, whose next task was the intention to reconcile his provincial Raphaelism with showy quotes by Michelangelo (1475-1564), but especially with the assumption of the Tuscan style, borrowed from Andrea del Sarto (1486-1531) and Gherardi "(See F. Todini-B. Zanardi, “La Pinacoteca comunale di Assisi”, 1980, p. 115).
See also Bastia Umbra
Dono Doni (1505-1575) was an artist of Assisi, who studied at the school of Giovanni di Petro called “Lo Spagna” (1450-1528), but also with clear references to the school of Raffaello (1483-1520) and Michelangelo (1475-15649, imported in Umbria by Raffaellino del Colle (1495-1566) and Iacopo Siculo (1490 circa-1544) [a Sicilian pupil of Michelangelo. His real name was Iacopo Santori, called "Iacopo Siculo"] (See M. C. Dorati da Empoli, “Una guida artistica di Roma in un manoscritto secentesco anonimo”, Gangemi, 2001, p. 117 footnote 28].
Of taddeo Gaddi (1320 circa-1366) G. Vasari (1511-1574) wrote: “To reward talent largely, and to honour those who possess it, wherever they may be found, is, without doubt, an excellent, useful, and praiseworthy action ; for there are many minds, which might remain dormant, if left without stimulus, but which, being excited by this allurement, put forth all their efforts, not only for the acquirement of their art, but to attain the utmost excellence therein; whereby they advance themselves to a useful and creditable station, doing honour to their country at the same time, and securing glory to their name, as well as riches and nobility to their descendants, who, from such beginnings, often rise to the highest and noblest condition, as happened to those of Taddeo Gaddi, in consequence of his works.
This Taddeo, son of Gaddo Gaddi, the Florentine, was the godson of Giotto ; and, after the death of his father Gaddo, was the disciple of that master, with whom he continued twenty-four years (...) Taddeo Gaddi was considered the first in the art, for judgment, genius, and other artistic qualities, being superior in most of these to all his fellow-disciples” ( See G. Vasari, “Lives of the most eminent painters, sculptors, and architects”, edited by J. Foster, London, 1850, Vol. I, pp. 191-192).
Gerardo Dottori (a contemporary painter)
Gerardo Dottori [1884-1977], was a Futurist painter and exponent of the so-called 'aeropainting', of which spoke F. T. Marinetti, who pointed out that "[his] research about the architecture of the chromatic space opened the way towards the achievement of the plastic effects ??of the aerial life (...) In our manifesto on 'aeropainting' we have enunciated the aesthetic and technical foundations of the new painting possibilities" (See F.T. Marinetti, “Manifesti futuristi di aerovita”, in “Aeropittura futurista”, 1970, Vol. I, p. 1895).
Gerardo Dottori was a Futurist painter since 1912; he was one of the leading artists of the XIX Biennial International Art Exhibition of the Italian 'aeropainters' in Venice in 1934 (See, “Aeropittura futurista”, pp. 1912 ff.).
On the subject of the frescoes of Bettona, Dottori wrote: "With the state of mind suggested by the speed of the planes I wanted to elevate the terrestrial landscape, isolating it outside the time-space, supporting it with the sky, because it appears in the guise of 'Paradise', thus making the opposite of the great Umbrian painting of the Renaissance, which dragged down the Sky to Earth "(See “Manifesto futurista umbro dell’aeropittura”, 1941, in “Ricostruzione futurista dell'Universo”, edited by E. Crispolti, Museo Civico di Torino, 1980, pp. 291 ff.).
See also Bettona
Gaetano Lapis, a native of Cagli, was a pupil of Sebastiano Conca (1680-1764), and he was particularly appreciated for his skill in drawing. He was called "The Carraccetto", for the influence that had on his formation also the Carracci’s painting. Luigi Lanzi describes him like this: “Gaetano Lapis di Cagli was one of these and brought with him good principles of design when he came to study under Conca He was a painter of an original taste as Rossi describes not very spirited but correct.
Many of his works are found in the churches of his native place and in the Duomo are two highly prized pieces on each side the altar a Supper of our Lord and a Nativity. In the various pictures I have seen him at S. Pietro S. Niccolo and S. Francesco I generally found the same composition of a Madonna of a graceful form attended by Saints in the act of adoring her and the Holy Infant. We find some of his works also in Perugia and else where The Prince Borghese in Rome has a Birth of Venus by him painted on a ceiling with a correctness of design and a grace superior to any thing that remains of him and no one can justly appreciate his talents who has not seen this work” ( See L. Lanzi, “The History of Painting in Italy”, London, 1828, Vol. II, p. 303)
About Luigi Garzi, … wrote: “ Luigi Garzi or Lodovico was an Italian painter born at Pistoia, according to Orlandi in 1638; studied in his native city under S. Boccali until age of fifteen and in 1653 went to Rome; he entered the school of Andrea Sacchi [1599-1661] and manifested such remarkable talent that he highly celebrated at Naples and Rome in branch of painting” ( See S. Spooner, “A Biographical History of the Fine Arts”, New York, 1865, p. 344).
Sebastiano Conca painted numerous pictures of the Virgin and Child (...) He studied under Francesco Solimena (1637-1747). His move to Rome in 1706 led to Conca being patronized by Cardinal Ottoboni (1667-1740), and an introduction to Pope Clement XI ( 1649-1721) resulted in Conca being commissioned to paint 'Jeremiah' in 1718 for the church of San Giovanni Laterano in Rome” ( See “Sebastiano Conca”, in “Sphinx Books”, 2009, p. 86).
“a painter of Urbino, born in 1593 ; studied under C. Ridolfi. Lanzi says he had great facility of execution and softness of coloring. He painted landscape in an excellent style, and introduced architectural pieces into with taste and judgment his works are in the Roman churches the which is the Decollation of St John in S Bartolomeo” ( See S. Spooner, “History of the fine Arts ...”, New York, 1865, p. 199).
See also Cagli
Antonello Gagini school
In fact, the sons of Antonello Gagini, Giandomenico (1517-1532) and Giacomo (1517-1598), worked with him and they continued, albeit with less originality, his work. Domenico worked with his father in Caltavuturo. There are also some important paintings here such as the "Deposition from the Cross of Christ" by Pietro Pumetta (16th century) and an "Adoration of the Magi" by Juan de Matta.
See also Caltavuturo
Spinello di Luca [1352-1410]
Towards the turn of the century, Spinello became famous for important commissions outside his native city; however he did frescoes in Aretine Churches throughout his entire carrier” (See S. Weppelmann. "Sulla pittura del Trecento aretino tra le botteghe di Andrea di Nerio e Spinello Aretino”, in “Proporzioni”, 2000, n. 1, p. 36). Around to 1400 he had various followers.
See also Capolona
Referring to Niccolò Circignani, G. Vasari handed down us a portrait of an artist who "worked hard and earned little": "Niccolò Circignani, known as the “Pomarance” from Volterra, worked quickly and for little or nothing, for which he toiled, but with little good. He died at the age of 70 years. In 1594 he had the citizenship of ‘Citta della Pieve’, but still he worked in 1596, as evidenced by his painting signed with that date in the church of Cascia in Umbria".
Master of the Dormitio
Recently it has been proposed to identify the 'Master of the Dormitio' with Domenico da Miranda, a painter mentioned in Rome in 1369 as working for Pope Urban V [1568-1644]. He was a very valued artist, and according to this hypothesis, he would be the son of Domenico, Bartolomeo da Miranda (...) He was so named for his monumental 'Dormitio Virginis' ['Sleep of the Virgin, asleep but not dead, and assumed into heaven with her son' in Terni in St. Peter's Church], which reveals an artist of remarkable powers of expression, who developped his painting in the tradition of the Umbrian painting of the fourteenth century. The name of "Master of the Dormitio" is due to Federico Zeri (1963).
Camillo and Gaspare
Camillo and Gaspare were woodcarvers, but they were better known as painters: "In the sixteenth century, the studio more active in the area of Norcia is that of Camillo, Gaspare and Fabio Angelucci. Camillo and Gaspare were the authors of the "Peace between the Guelphs and Ghibellines," of 1547, on the Altar of Peace.
Saint Rita of Cascia
As explained by Mario Sensi: "[...] Saint Rita of Cascia (1380-1456 approx) (...) was defined as "holy of silence", because she has nothing left to write; a short biography, just a few lines, wrote notary Domenico di Angelo (…) Saint Rita entered the monastery of Santa Maria Maddalena of Cascia, "sub regula beati Augustini" in 1416 (...) and the 1456-1457 was presumably the year of her death; these are, along with the May 22 - dies natalis - the only firm points to reconstruct the biography of this saint whose canonization was instituted in 1626 [...]"
Eros Pellini, son of the sculptor Eugene, was also Wildt’s pupil at Academy of Brera, where he taught in 1970-1971; he worked, since 1939, for over ten years on the sculptures for the temple of S. Rita da Cascia. The frescoes in the cupola of the Umbrian basilica were entrusted to Luigi Montanarini* (1906-1998), Professor of painting and Director of the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome; he derives from the fertile Tuscan school, with personal points of reference in French art.
Born into a wealthy farming family, Ceracchini lived in the country, in direct contact with nature; the artist matured from adolescence with an instinctive tendency to the realist art
Virgilio Nucci , who painted in the style of Raphael, was a disciple of Daniel da Volterra, and worked in various cities of the same province.
See also Cascia
Castiglione del Lago
Galeazzo Alessi: (1500-1572). The fame of this artist encreased to such a degree that the king of Portugal declared him a cavalier and the king of Spain sent for him to execute some buildings with which however we are unacquainted and loading him with riches and honour permitted him after some time to return to his own country. On his return to Perugia he was received by his fellow citizens with the most flattering expressions of regard was admitted into the Commercial College and sent to pope Paul V [1552-1621] on a commission involving the public interest.
On his return to his own country he was requested by the cardinal Odoardo Farnese [1573-1626] to give a design for the façade of the Gesu of Rome but which on account of being too expensive was never executed. For the duke della Corgna he afterwards built a stately palace at Castiglionc on the Lake of Perugia and for the cardinal brother of the duke he erected another situated on a hill a few miles from the city.
In conjunction with Giulio Danti [1500-1575] a Perugian architect he was concerned in the church of the Madonna degli Angeli above Assisi which was built after the design of Iacopo Barozzi from Vignola, called ‘Il Vignola’ [1507-1573]” ( See F. Milizia, “The Lives of Celebrated Architects Ancient and Modern”, London, 1826, Vol. II, p. 10).
See also castiglione del Lago
Barna da Siena
Barna de Siena was a pupil of Simone Martini. However, the attribution of Saint John the babtist in the collegiale church at Chianciano to this painter had no consequence, especially because Barna’s style can be easily confused with other painters closely related to the school of Simone Martini. For example, the frescoes of the Collegiate Church of San Gimignano were initially attributed to Barna, but then the critics attributed it to Lippo Memmi, a Simone Martini’s collaborator. In fact, L. Castelfranchi Vegas emphasizes that "the Memmi’s “Bottega” painted the famous frescoes with 'Stories from the Life of Christ' in the nave of the Collegiate Church of San Gimignano, but clearly it is a work of a group of artists of the school of Lippo Memmi (See Vedi L. Castelfranchi Vegas-A. Conti, “L'arte medioevale in Italia e nell'Occidente europeo”, 1993, pp. 100-101). G. Vasari said that Barna da Siena died in "in a fall from scaffolding."
Francesco Rustici, called the “Rustichino” (1595-1625), was a painter from Siena. Luigi Lanzi spoke of “Rustichino” like this: “[…] Francesco di Cristofano Rustici, called Rustichino, is better known in Siena than those just mentioned. He obtained the name of Rustichino, either because he was the last of a family that had produced three painters before him, or because he died in the outset of life. This circumstance, perhaps, has contributed to his reputation. All his remaining works are beautiful, which seldom happens to artists who live to a great age, and who abate in diligence as they advance in reputation and in years.
He is a graceful follower of Caravaggio [1571-1610]; and particularly excels in confined or can die lights, much in the style of Gherardo della Notte [that is Gerard Van Honthorst, 1592-1656]; but he is perhaps more select. The Dying Magdalen, in possession of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and the S. Sebastian, cured by S. Irene, which belongs to Prince Borghese, in Rome, are in this style. But it was not the only one in which Rustichino painted. He had visited Rome, and had studied the works of the Caracci and of Guido, of which traces may be discovered in several of his works; but, at the same time, all of them possess a certain originality, and something peculiarly his own.
The best of all his pictures at Siena is an Annunciation, in Provenzano, before which the Virgin, S. Catherine, prays, surrounded by a multitude of angels. If Rustichino pleases in other works, in this he enchants us. He began a work on the history of the city in the public palace, in which his father, whose figures were not equal to his decorations, was also employed, and it was finished by other artists […]” ( See Luigi Lanzi, “History of Painting in Italy”, London, 1828, Vol. I, pp. 447-448).
Working in the 14th century, he was an architect and sculptor in wood who worked at the Renaissance court of Urbino. (See “Arte in Valdichiana dal XIII al XVIII secolo”, p. 29).
The stanined glas window in the Museum of sacred Art in Chianciano that is attributed to Cozzarelli was originally attributed by Brogi to the School of Pollaiuolo [1433-1498] and it was then attributed to an anonymous follower of Andrea del Castagno [1421-1457], because he was also a drawer of stained glass, and because in the Palazzo Medici of Florence in an inventory (1492) was found a draft depicting St. John the Baptist by Andrea del Castagno, from which the imitator could have taken the idea for the window of Chianciano.
Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, nicknamed “Sodoma”, 1477-1549n painted the "Virgin and Child" in chianciano museum. Sodoma worked in Milan, Rome and Siena.
Maestro di Chianciano
In fact, the Maestro di Chianciano is an anonymous painter of the province of Siena of the first half of the fourteenth century, perhaps active between 1325 and 1330, whose personality has been identified by Cesare Brandi as a pupil of Duccio and Simone Martini and perhaps of Ugolino di Nerio (by Rainerio), sometimes confused with Ugolino di Neri, of whom we know only that he belonged to a family of painters. The father's name was "Nerio Ugolino" and was a painter active between 1311 and 1317 (See C. Brandi, “Duccio: Con 127 Tavole”, Vallecchi, 1951, p. 153).
According to P. Torriti, the so-called “Maestro di Chianciano” was a "country painter who meet only the needs of farmers of the land between Orcia and Chiana” (See P. Torriti “La Pinacoteca nazionale di Siena: i dipinti”, 1990, Vol. III, p. 44).
See also Chianciano
"Francesco di Stefano, called Pesellino (1422-1457), was born in Florence in 1422. His father and grandfather were both painters, and it is probable that Francesco was the pupil of his grandfather Julian. He was a close follower of Fra Filippo Lippi [1457-1504], and was influenced by Fra Angelico [1355-1455], Masaccio [1401-1428], and especially by Domenico Veneziano [ 1410-1461]" (See “Collection of Mediaeval And Renaissance Paintings”, Fogg Art Museum, 2004, p. 62).
See also Cetica
Citta di Castello
Rosso Fiorentina was a “rebel” and extravagant painter, a mannerist artist who left Florence for France, whose style was chacterized, like Iacopo da Pontormo (1494-1557), by an “anticlassical experimentalism” ( See G. Maiorino, “The Portrait of Eccentricity”, The Pennsylvania State University, 1991, p. 87).
Gherardi was called Doceno of Borgo San Sepolcro, and was a disciple of Giulio Romano and helped him to paint in fresco the Hall of Constantine in the Papal Palace at Rome” ( See G. Vasari, “Lives of the painters, sculptors and architects”, edited by G. du C. De Vere, 1996, Vol. II, p. 315).
This painter was bom at Bologna in 1512 and was a scholar of Innocenzio Francucci called da Imola He attached himself however more to the style of Giorgio Vasari preferring his expedition and facility to the diligent and careful finishing of Francucci. He is more incorrect and negligent than Vasari and to him Lanzi attributes the principal cause of the decadence that took place in the Bolognese school at his time until it was reformed by the Caracci who were notwithstanding educated in his academy.
He possessed fecundity of invention boldness of design a cultivated mind and every requisite to form a great machinist but his love of luxury and expense induced him to gratify those propensities so fatal to the reputation of an artist by despatch and hurry for the sake of gain. At Citta di Castello he painted a saloon in the Palazzo Vitelli representing the principal achievements of that noble family which he finished according to Malvasia in a few weeks” ( See M. Bryan, “Dictionary of Painters and Engravers”, London, 1849, p. 251).
See also Citta di Castello
Lorenzo di Bicci
Lorenzo di Bicci opened a studio which after his death his son, called "Bicci [son] of Lorenzo" (1373-1452), took over. Lorenzo di Bicci was a painter whose works were much appreciated " and he received a steady stream of assignments for altarpieces and frescoes "(See I. Chilvers, “Dizionario dell'Arte”, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 517). Finally, we observe that the pictorial tradition of the Bicci family was continued with "Neri di Bicci" (1418-1492).
Master of 1336
This unknown artist demonstrates the presence of a real Pistoiese school that developed around the first half of the fourteenth century and in essence a very "original" school with respect to the influence of Florence.
Known as "Il Pontormo” Iacopo Carrucci was born in Pontorme, near Empoli (1494-1556). Vasari described him as a "solitary and eccentric" man, depicting saints as "devils": “Pontormo was born in 1494 and orphaned as a small child. At the age of eleven he was apprenticed and over the next seven or eight years painted in theb workshops of such great painters as Leonardo da Vinci [1452-1519] an Piero di Cosimo[1461-1522]. As Pontormo’s reputation rose and the demand for his work increased, the painter became increasingly solitary and eccentric” ( See S. Bauer, “Hypochondria”, University of California press, 1988, p. 178).
See also Empoli
Andrea di Cagno
Andrea di Cagno [active at Foligno in the 15th century], is a painter known through some documents, but without any certain work, except just a fresco of the "Stories of the Virgin "in the church of St. Augustine. The painter has been studied carefully, and to him were assigned various works at Foligno, such as the "Marriage of Canaan," in the monastery of Sant'Anna in Foligno and the "History of St. Anthony Abbot", at Montefalco (See B. Toscano, “ Museo comunale di San Francesco a Montefalco”, Electa, 1990, pp. 21-22).
Bastiano is mentioned in the documents as "Bastianus", presumably a local painter, "perhaps identifiable with the “Bastiano” who in 1350 painted a 'Madonna' at Gualdo Cattaneo and in 1346 painted some frescoes at Todi in the church of San Francesco at Borgo Nuovo "(See S. Bandera Bistoletti-M. Gregori, “Pittura murale in Italia”, 1995, p. 166).
We have some historical data about this artist, due to some payments for frescoes executed in the Portiuncula of Assisi; in this document is quoted a "Francesco, a painter from Bologna. This is one of the sources about the Bolognese origin of this painter.
The other source consists of a letter of April 1697, 16 of a French correspondent from Rome, in response to a request for information about the author with relation to some pictures sent to Cardinal Nerli, Bishop of Assisi "(See V. Casale, “Pittura del Seicento e del Settecento: ricerche in Umbria”, 1976, Vol I, p. 415). We add also that F. Providoni had very important relationships with Cardinal Francesco Nerli (1636-1708), and also indirectly with the Court of Louis XIV (1638-1715), since Cardinal Nerli was Nuncio in Paris between 1670 and 1676. For the Bishop of Assisi, Providoni painted 25 paintings with sacred subjects, which were sent to Louis XIV by the same Cardinal Nerli (See L. Barroero, “Pittura del Seicento. Ricerche in Umbria. Catalogo della mostra”, 1989, p. 333 ).
See also Gualdo Cattaneo
Antonio da Fabriano
Antonio da Fabriano: “ (active 1451-89). Italian painter whose style shows a dependence on the work of Lorenzo Salimbeni and the Vivarini. A number of signed and dated works by him are in churches and galleries in Fabriano, Sassoferrato and Gualdo” ( See B. S. Myers-S. D. Myers, “Encyclopedia of painting: painters and painting of the world from prehistoric times to the present day”, 1979, p. 18).
As R. Guerrieri pointed out, Nucci might even have been born in Gualdo, because he signed his works as "Avanzinus Nuccius Gualdensis" [Avanzino Nucci from Gualdo] (See R. Guerrieri, p. 150).
Matteo de Gualdo and family
The de Gualdo family of artists includes Matteo, the most famous, Gerolamo, his son, and Bernardo, his grandson.
Matteo da Gualdo (1435-1507) “ was an Umbrian painter most strongly influenced by the Venetian Carlo Crivelli [1435-1495]. His style is stiff and provincial and given to affected gestures and elongation of anatomical forms” ( See B. S. Myers, “Encyclopedia of painting: painters and painting of the world from prehistoric times to the present day”, 1970, p. 331.
About Carlo Crivelli, See G. Mc Neil Rushforth: “The very form of many of Crivelli’s works is suggestive of the atmosphere in which he was trained in Venice. Though not be confined to Venice, the old Venetian school, with its Byzantine traditions …[was important] for Crivelli, whose special achievement it was to perpetuate in a more modern form all that was best in the Byzantine tradition” [ See G. Mc Neil Rushforth, “Carlo Crivelli”, London ,  2008, p. 3).
Sano di Pietro
Sano di Pietro (1406-1481) was a great miniaturist, “whose real name was Ansano di Pietro di Mencio. He is a Sienese painter whose activity covers the same period as that of Giovanni di Paolo. Both of them, born in the early years of the 15th century” ( See R. van Marle, “The development of the Italian schools of painting”, 1970, p. 466).
Lorenzo Pignani da Gualdo
In the seventeenth century, working in Rome " Lorenzo Pignani da Gualdo obtained from Pope Clement X (1649-1721) the privilege to apply the gold to the majolica, according to a special unknown system "(See L. de Mauri, “L'amatore di maioliche”, Hoepli, 1988, p. 106). This "unknown" technique was called polychrome ceramic “a lustro”, that is an ancient technique of decoration that included a clever mixture of metal salts and clay diluted with vinegar, which was native to Gubbio and Deruta, and then it was also known by the Masters of Gualdo Tadino, and it is still perpetuated in the city by many craftsmen.
See also Gualdo Tadino
Eusebio da San Giorgio
Eusebio da San Giorgio (15th -16th century) “was certainly one of the Umbrians who were trained in Perugino's [1450-1523] workshop towards the end of the century; he was influenced also by Raphael, and he is mentioned in some documents in 1488 and in 1495 ( See L. Dussler, “Raphael”, Phaidon, 1971, p. 57).
"The altarpiece in the church of saint Nicholas (Lisciano Niccone), which is located in an isolated church, is ignored by all the criticism, except from D. Gnoli, who believed it performed by Eusebio da San Giorgio in conjunction with a pupil around 1515. The influence of Raffaello (1483-1520) is visible in the group of the Virgin and Child, while the figures of Saints, somewhat clumsy and awkward, are perhaps the work was composed of less experienced individuals "( See F.F. Mancini-P. Scarpellini, “Pittura in Umbria tra il 1480 e il 1540: premesse e sviluppi nei tempi di Perugino e Raffaello”, Electa, 1983, p. 34).
See also Lisciano Niccone
Lugnano in Teverina
Niccolo di Liberatore
Niccolo di Liberatore (1455-1502), one of the few Umbrian artists, along with Perugino and Pinturicchio, to be included by Vasari in his Lives, left a body of altarpieces that had led many scholars to assume that Umbrian painters, too, worked in a mostly ornamental mode.
Livio Agresti was a painter of remarkable value: “A very distinguished historical painter in oil and in fresco a native of Forli a town in the Roman territory. After a course of study under the superintendance of Perino del Vaga [1501-1547] he was employed by to adorn the Vatican by Pope Gregory XIII [1502-1585]. Several of the churches and public palaces of Rome are decorated with his labours.
His native town is rich in possessing his finest productions as altar pieces for the churches. In one of the chapels attached to the cathedral of St Peter is a grand production by him of the Last Supper and in the vault of the ceiling are some admirable figures of the prophets. Vasari [1511-1574] commends the richness of his invention the goodness of his colouring and the correctness of his design He died anno 1580 aged about 60” ( See T. Dodd, “ Livio Agresti”, in “ The Illustrious and Enlightened Cherisher of Art, Science, and Literature”, 1824, First Part, ad vocem).
Leandro Bassano and sons
Leandro da Ponte, called Leandro Bassano] (See G. Ingegneri, “I cappuccini nell'Umbria tra Sei e Settecento ...”, 2005, p. 235): “Iacopo Bassano had four painter sons who continued his style and sometimes collaborated with him, Francesco the Younger (1549–92), Gerolamo (1566–1621), Giovanni Battista (1553–1613), and Leandro (1557–1622).
Francesco and Leandro both acquired some dinstinction and popularity in Venice. Leandro was knighted by the doge in the 1555 or 1556 (thereafter he sometimes added 'Eques' to his signature)” ( See I. Chilvers, “The Oxford Dictionary of Art”, Oxford University press, 2004, pp. 56-57).
See also Lugnano in Teverina
Matteo da Gualdo
Matteo di Pietro, called “Matteo da Gualdo Tadino” (1435-1507) was a singular figure of painter who alternated the artistic activity to the profession of notary, and he was a typical example of a local artist, whose range did not extend beyond Assisi and Nocera Umbra. Matteo da Gualdo was born in 1435 in Gualdo Tadino where he died in 1507: "His painting is the provincial counterpart (…) of the so-called “Rinascimento Umbratile” [= Umbratile Renaissance], of which Bartolomeo di Tommaso [an Umbrian painter active in the first half of the 15th century and whose only certain work is the painting (it was already a polyptych) of S. Savior of Foligno] was the most great and prestigious exponent [The expression "Umbratile Renaissance" was coined by Roberto Longhi [1890-1970], who pointed out with it a new "transition style", characterized by a decorative elegance and a strong sentimentality.
This style affected only the provincial towns of Italy]. The influence of this Master from Foligno “was the connective tissue of all subsequent artistic experiences of Matteo di Gualdo, who was also influenced by Piero della Francesca” (See F. Todini-B. Zanardi, “La Pinacoteca comunale di Assisi”, 1980, p. 79).
Giulio Cesare Angeli
Giulio Cesare Angeli was a pupil in Bologna by Ludovico Carracci, and in the first phase of his activity he belonged along with Simeone Ciburri (died 1624) and Benedetto Bandiera (1557-1634) to the so-called "Barocceschi Umbri," that is to that circle of painters who referred to Federico Barocci (1535-1612), whose style was marked by a remarkable capacity of discernment, vivid colours and a strong attention to the realistic data. (See F. Bettoni-V. Casale, “Il costume e l'immagine pittorica nel Seicento umbro”, 1984, p. 85).
See also Nocera Umbra
Dello Delli (1404-1446)
“Dello (short for Daniello) Delli had gained a reputation as painter of " cassoni " (wedding-chests) ; but political troubles led him to fly from Florence to Siena in 1424, thence to Venice (about 1427), and finally to Spain, where he lived in the service of the Kings of Aragon and attained knighthood” ( See S. Brinton, “The Renaissance in Italian Art (Sculpture and Painting): Florence, Pisa, Siena”, 1898, p. 43).
"With the name of "Master Montefoscoli "in 1984 Gert Krytenberg wanted to show the sculptor who did the group of 'Annunciation which is located on the sides of the main altar of the parish church of Santa Maria Assunta of Montefoscoli" (See L. Carletti-C. Giometti, “Scultura lignea pisana: percorsi nel territorio tra Medioevo e Rinascimento”, F. Motta, 2001, p. 42).
See also Pelago
One of the great devotional painters of Umbria and presumably the master of Gentile da Fabriano (1375-1427): “Ottaviano Nelli's best work consists of frescoes at Gubbio and Foligno, and the one picture by him which is shown, a polyptych with the Madonna and four saints from Pietralunga near Umbertide, bearing the date 1403, is certainly not up to his best standard, and appears to have been retouched, as indeed has been the fate of several of the pictures in this room” ( See “The Builder”, 1948, p. 459).
Raffaellino del Colle
G. Vasari (1511-1574) wrote about him: “Raffaello del Garbo, having received the name of ‘Raffaellino’, as a nom de caresse, in his childhood, retained it ever after, and was so called through his life. The expectation of what he would ultimately accomplish in art was so highly raised in his youth that he was numbered among the most eminent masters at a very early period of life a distinction attained by few.
But to still fewer is the fate which finally befell Raffaellino seeing that an excellent commencement and almost certain hopes he arrived at a most insignificant conclusion. We may remark for the most part that it is in the productions of nature as in those of art the best arise from small beginnings increasing little and little by slow degrees until they attain to their highest perfection. But [...] in the instance of Raffaellino del Garbo art and nature appeared to have united their efforts for the production of an extraordinary commencement the results of which were nevertheless beneath mediocrity in the middle of his career and absolutely nothing at its close” ( See G. Vasari, “Lives ...”, Edited by J. Foster, London 1851, Vol. II, pp. 473-474).
See also Pietralunga
Paolo Uccello (1397-1475)
"The work of Florentine painter Paolo Uccello represents a unique attempt to reconcile two distinct artistic styles, both the essentially decorative late Gothic and the new heroic style of the Renaissance (.) By the time Paolo Uccello, born Paolo di Dono, was 10 years old he was already an apprentice in the workshop of the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti [1378-1455], who was then at work on what became one of the masterpieces of Renaissance art, the bronze door for the baptistery of the Florence Cathedral" ( See " The 100 Most Influential Painters and Sculptors of the Renaissance, edited by K. Kuiper, Britannica, 2010, p. 45).
Master of Varlungo"
(XIII century)*. "Over the last fifteen years of the century, the Master of Varlungo interprets the freshnesses of Giotto in an original and deliberately archaic language. The formation of the painter probably took place in an area close to the Maestro della Maddalena and Gaddo Gaddi "(See "La pittura a Firenze nel Duecento", 1990, p. 111). A triptych with Madonna and Saints, and the other two panels are the work by Giovanni del Biondo (XIV century), a pupil of Orcagna [=Andrea di Cione, 1310-1368] and a very popular painter in his time, but who was omitted by G. Vasari: "At one moment in the careers of Giotto, Orcagna, and Nardo di Cione, these painters lived in the parish of San Michele Visdomini. Giovanni del Biondo is documented in the gonfalone of Vaio, which contained the parish of San Michele Visdomini" ( See "The World of the Early Sienese Painter", edited by G. Erasmi, 2001, p. 52). A painting of the Madonna del Rosario is by Francesco Mati (1565/70-1648), "a Florentine Mannerist painter, Bronzino's pupil" ( See M. Gašparovi and M. Bagarić, "Hidden treasure of the Museum of Arts and Crafts, Zagreb: selection from the museum holdings to mark the 125th anniversary of MUO", 2005, p. 29).See also Pratovechio
"He studied at Rome, next to Perin del Vaga [1501-1547], one of the best pupils of Raffaello Sanzio [1483-1520]" ( See L. Borroero, “La pittura nell'Umbria meridionale dal Trecento al Novecento”, 1993, p. 67). He often worked in Umbria, Terni, Narni and Amelia.
Giovanni Batista Manna
Manna was a small Master following in wake of Felice Damiani [1560-1618] (a painter of Gubbio, characterized by a marked realism), but more refined and sensitive "(See Apolloni F.-M. Tazzoli, “Antologia di belle arti”, 1978, p. 160).
About Manna, it was stressed that "the painter is entirely absent from the repertoires, and he relies on self-knowledge only to the work of San Gemini, signed and dated 1618" (See, “Il costume e l'immagine pittorica nel Seicento umbro”, edited by F. Bettoni-V. Casale, 1984, p. 97).
Ciburri was an intermediate painter, who belonged to the "so-called 'Barocceschi,’ that is the Perugian painters that characterized the late Mannerism in that city, like Benedetto Bandiera (1560 circa-1634), Simeone Ciburri and Silla Piccinini [16th century]"(See “Le arti nelle Marche al tempo di Sisto V. Catalogo della mostra”, edited by P. Dal Poggetto, Silvana, 1992, p. 346 footnote 14).
Ottaviano Nelli was "active circa 1400-1444 (...).The distinct Gubbian style may best be seen in the genial Ottaviano Nelli, the first recognisable Umbrian master of talent in the Trecento "(See J.M. Dent," A Short History of Italian Painting ", 1921, p. 85).
Rogerio de Todi
"Rogerio de Todi" was Minister of the Order of Friars Minor, and widely known as companion of St. Francis. The work of Ruggero da Todi was located in the apse of which collapsed the roof, receiving severe damage. According to L. Bellosi this Umbrian painter, with his “Madonna in Trono”, followed the ornamental style of the “Maestri Cosmati”, “which was an innovation that characterized the pictorial revolution of the late thirteenth century”. His style contrasted with the more archaic style of Cimabue [1240-1302] (See L. Bellosi, “La pecora di Giotto”, Torino, Einaudi, 1985, p. 124 ).
See also San Gemini
Girolamo di Benvenuto
There are several records concerning Girolamo di Benvenuto's life, and his artistic personality is known thorough a signed alterpiece of 1508, now in the Siena Gallery (…) A large fresco of the Assumption of 1515 in the church of Fontegiusta in Siena in also fully documented as his. Girolamo di Giovanni was the son and pupil of Benvenuto di Giovanni, another pupil of Vecchietta” ( See F. Zeri, “Italian paintings in the Walters Art Gallery”, 1976, Vol. I, p. 132).
See also Saturnia
Pinturicchio was a painter under the patronage of Pope Alexander VI Borgia, and he worked frequently for the Borgia [See the so Called "Borgia Apartment", in the Vatican palace in Rome ]. The art of Pinturicchio was esteemed by the highest Roman circles, such as by the Popes and Roman noble families. He performed some frescoes in San Francesco at Subiaco and at Siena, where he is documented as early as 1503.
See also Subiaco
Andrea Polidori (1586-1648), a native of Todi, is documented at Terni only with the "Madonna with Child"; according to a deeply rooted tradition, Polidori was a pupil of Annibale Carracci (1560-1609), but with some doubt (See L. Borroero, “Pittura del Seicento. Ricerche in Umbria. Catalogo della mostra”, "Electa, 1989, p. 193).
Ludovico Carosi was a native of Terni, and worked in the church of San Salvatore around 1640 ( See “Antichità viva”, 1980, p. 38).
Karel van Mander
"A native of the south of Flanders, and representative of the symbolic artistic language of the Academy of Harlem , led by Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617) and Cornelius Corneliszoon (1562-1638), Karel van Mander is considered one of the leading exponents of the Netherlander Mannerist style. Provided is a solid humanistic culture (...) in 1573, Karel decided to make a journey to Italy. During his stay he frescoed a great hall of the Palazzo Spada in Terni, depicting scenes from ‘St. Bartholomew's Night Massacre’ and the 'Battle of Lepanto'. The work has recently been found and attributed to the artist "(See R. De Mambro Santos, “Le antichità parallele. Il ruolo della tradizione classica nell'opera di Karel Van Mander”, in “A constituição da tradição clássica”, 2004, pp. 105-106).
Michelangelo Spada belonged to the circle most adverse to the Protestant Reformation: "His powerful friends Cardinals of the Holy Inquisition judged the massacre of St. Bartholomew a positive event for Catholics. Therefore, the choice to represent the “Massacre” in the hall of his palace reflects his religious beliefs "(See, “Bollettino d'Arte”, 1997, p. 80).
Luca Fiammingo was a Carmelite friar who worked hard for his Order, reaching a stylistic consciousness that made him a leading figure and a very influential artist who painted much more remarkable works than those of his colleagues. A wonderful proof of his activity is in Terni, in the Church of San Valentino. Among the paintings he created for this church we can see the beatiful San Luke showing, as a real artist proud of his work, the portrait of the Virgin and child (See “Lo Sguardo di Maria: un itinerario dal Trecento al Seicento nel territorio di Terni”, p. 40).
See also Terni
His activity in Umbria was very important, because it was here that he spread the classic style. Giovanni di Pietro, called "Lo Spagna" [1450-1528], also worked here and from 1508 alternated periods of residence in the Marches with periods in Umbria, where he made many frescoes.
Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) wrote about him that he "was a disciple of Giovanni Spagnolo, but he painted better than all the other disciples that Giovanni left after his death "(See G. Vasari," Vita di Pietro Perugino ", in" Opere di Giorgio Vasari, "Trieste, 1857, p. 429).
See also Trevi
Pinturicchio and Giovanni Battista Caporali
Pinturicchio (1452-1513) and Giovanni Battista Caporali (1476-1560) names appear in some payments related to the "Coronation of the Virgin" (Vatican Gallery ) for the church of Santa Maria della Pieta. The contacts of Corporali with Pinturicchio are attested by their collaboration documented between 1503 and 1505.
It seems that Raffaello (1483-1520) had supplied his colleague and Giovanni Battista Caporali with designs for the '"Coronation of the Virgin", now in the Pinacoteca Vaticana, where the preparatory study provided by Raffaello is also displayed (See “Raffaello e i suoi: disegni di Raffaello e della sua cerchia”, 1992, pp. 53 ff.)
See also Umbertide
Benedetto Bandiera (1560-1634) is a Perusian painter belonging to the so-called "Umbrian ‘Barocceschi,’" exponents of a strong Mannerism style, accompanied by an eclectic expressionism and suftened hues (See V . Casale, “Pittura del Seicento e del Settecento: ricerche in Umbria”, 1976, Vol. I, p. 10).
Matteo da Gualdo
As informed Notary "Antonii Hugolini de Asisio" [Antonio Ugolino from Assisi], the picture of Matteo da Gualdo "was placed above the high altar of this church from its origins" (See S. Giuliani Spurny, "Matteo Gualdo", 1999, p. 71). The triptych was painted by Matteo da Gualdo in 1478: "On the one hand there is the depiction of the Madonna enthroned, surrounded by a choir of angels, which recalls the paintings by Giovanni in his altarpiece of San Pellegrino, while the other figures, still embraced in a rigid formulation, seem influenced by the paintings by Nicolò Alunno "(Spurny, p. 13). The attribution of this work to Matteo da Gualdo is sure, since some archival documents clearly show that “dicte tabule facta [est] per magistrum Matteum de Gualdo” [This picture was painted by Master Matteo da Gualdo]" (Spurny, p. 1997).
See also Valfabbrica
Valerio da Foligno
Valerio da Foligno was recorded in the Historical Archive of Valtopina: "1493. The Chamberlain of the City of Valtopina delivers seven and a half libra to the painter Valerio da Foligno for a picture of the coat of arms of Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503) on the walls of the city gates "(See B. Toscano, “Pittura a Foligno 1439-1502: fonti e studi : un bilancio”, 2000, p. 101).
Presumably he was the painter Valerio de’ Muti, “the painter of Foligno certainly active in this strictly local area, as evidenced by his works, which are a constant imitation of “L’Alunno” (See F. Caroli, “ Pittura umbra dal '200 al '700: 60 opere provenienti dai Musei e dalle chiese di Assisi, Foligno, Nocera Umbra e Sellano”, 1997, p. 90).
Lattanzio di Niccolò
Lattanzio di Niccolò was The son of “L’alunno”, about whom we have information from 1480 to 1527. He was the author in the castle of the “Madonna del Soccorso”, dating back to 1509: "The attribution of this painting to Lattanzio di Niccolò [Liberatore, called “L’Alunno”] is recognized unanimously by the critics. Below, we read the following inscription: 'Sancta Maria Succurre Populo Castri Ritaldorum" [Holy Mary, help the people of Ritaldi Castle] (See “Nicolaus Pictor: Nicolò di Liberatore detto l'Alunno: artisti e botteghe a Foligno nel Quattrocento”, edited by G. Benazzi-E. Lunghi, 1997, p. 1).
See also Valtopina