The town of Conegliano was born around the 12th century, when a group of noble families established a settlement on a hill around a pre-existing fortress.

This castle became the centre of the local political, military and religious power, with the Palace of the Podestà and the Church of St. Leonardo.

In the Middle Ages Conegliano became a very important place politically, based on local agriculture that was run by the monks who lived in the many monasteries near the town and brought food and hand-made quality products to Conegliano.

The 13th century Monastery of Santa Maria Mater Domini (1231) was very powerful economically, as were the Monastery of St. Francis (1231) and the School of Santa Maria of the Battuti (c.1272).

In the Middle Ages Conegliano was first conquered by the Municipality of Treviso (1148) and then by the Scaligeri from Verona who substantially reinforced the castle to make it a fortress against external threats. Further efforts to strengthen the Castle continued under the rule of Venice, with the addition of moats and ramparts.

Now that the town was well protected the construction of a considerable number of palaces took place, including the Palazzo Comunale (Town Hall).

More recently Conegliano was subject to rule by the Austrian and then the French; and then, together with the Veneto, was handed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866.