Cefalà Diana is a "small" town in Sicily with a history that presents many difficulties of interpretation - only in recent years have these found a satisfying solution. The 'current' town of Cefalà Diana has quite 'modern' origins, only dating back to the late 17th century
By 1210 Aidone was a remarkable city in the age of Frederick II of Swabia, although the town is actually very ancient - it was in 1210 that it was defined as a “terra” ["land"], a term that refers to the concept of a fairly important town, walled and with its own administrative offices, which also exercised some control over the surrounding area .
In the 5th century AD, Byzantine groups settled in the “Valle d'Itria”. Later, with the domination of the Lombards (6th-7th century AD), these first settlements of farmers were reinforced.
The vicissitudes of war and destruction of villages along the coast then forced the population to move to the “Murgia Plateau”. The new populations revitalized the oldest settlements creating new ones, from which, in the following centuries, the first hamlets such as Locorotondo were to develop (Locorotondo itself was so named because of its circular shape).
Regarding the foundation of the medieval city, there are some outstanding questions that are not historically based, like the suggestion that Melfi was founded in 1018 by Catapan Basilius Bojoannes (Catapan of Italy from 1017 to 1027), a hypothesis that G. Fortunato considers to be a “legend”:
"It is a legend that Catapan Basilius Boioannes had founded Melfi in 1018, the city was already seat to the merchants of Amalfi, and as Venosa and Lavello for Jewish bankers. He only encircled the city with walls […]” .
This is also confirmed by recent studies that prove that Catapan Basilius Boioannes in the 11th century only founded some "kastra [fortresses] of Melfi” .
Even with the advent of the Lombards Melfi was fortified because of its strategic location on the edge in the domain of the Byzantines. In the ninth century it came into the hands of the Byzantines, becoming, however, a reason for a clash with the Lombards.
Normans in Melfi
During the 11th century Melfi was for many years the capital of the Normans, and it was here that five ecumenical councils were organized between 1059 and 1101, including that in which the First Crusade (1089) was decided.
The Normans also decided to build a new castle, new walls and the cathedral at this time..
Apart from some important examples from Prehistoric times, we do not have important sources that tell us much about the history of Aegadian Islans or Levanzo.
With regard to Levanzo itself, we have very few traces of Roman times, except for a building to salt the fish, even if today Archaeology (including underwater Archaeology) is bringing to light increasingly numerous and important evidence.