According to a widely accepted hypothesis, the small fortified village of Triora and its castle were founded in the early period of the Lombard domination in Liguria and served as a refuge for diverse indigenous populations, and which provided protection from the ravages made into Liguria by the Lombard King Rothari in the seventh century.
Triora was located in the county of Ventimiglia, under whose feudal lords it remained until 1261, after which time it came under the jurisdiction of Genoa.
The late duchy of Mantua evolved over an extended period of time linked, as we shall see, to the feudal system that ruled it. In the period between the 9th and 13th centuries Sabbioneta was located, as it already was in Roman times, in the territory of Cremona. In fact, G.L. Gregori stated that:
"In Roman times Sabbioneta belonged to the territory of Cremona and not to Mantua (as T. Mommsen supposed). Sporadic finds are attested only sporadically at Roman times such as rustic villas or necropolis (1).
Things changed radically with the conquest of the territory by the Gonzaga family during the15th century. These newly conquered lands were assigned to the cadet branches of the Gonzaga family. Sabbioneta, which in 1429 became subject to the high dominion of the Gonzaga. At this time it was just a small village with a few buildings along the “Via Postumia” and the “Via Vitelliana” (2).
The name of Sabbioneta was mentioned for the first time in a plaque of the sixth century AD, which is now lost, and we know of it only through references in later learned works.
In the Middle Ages Castroreale was just one of many "anonymous" hamlets of the plain of Milazzo. In a document dating back to 1263, under King Manfred (1232-1266), son of Frederick II of Swabia (1194-1250), its ancient name, "Criccine" appears next to the names of other hamlets in a donation to the Monastery of Santa Maria di Monialium of Messina:
“[...] "Then the lands that are within the territory of Nasari and third parts of the wood and hamlet of 'Criccine'[...]"
The discussion about the antiquity of Patti is very complex, because it revolves around Greek documents on parchment translated into Latin, and about which there have been important studies on their dates and authenticity .
Starting from "pretty certain" things, we can say that the name "Patti" appears for the first time in a document of Count Roger (1031-1101) dating back to 1094 on:
Some sources claim that the city of Monreale was born on the site where there was an ancient Muslim village called “Bulchar”.
Later, since the mountainous area was the favorite game reserve of the Norman kings, it was because of this "royal" association that the site was called in Latin "Mons Regalis", or "Mountain of the King" ("Royal Mountain") - hence Monreale.